Časopis vydává Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR ve spolupráci se Správou jeskyní ČR a Správou NP Šumava, Krkonošského národního parku, NP Podyjí a NP České Švýcarsko. V tištěné podobě vychází již od roku 1946.

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Ochrana přírody 2/2023 23. 4. 2023 Kulér-Summary Tištěná verze článku v pdf

Summary 2/2023

Březina S., Hrázský Z., Krause D., Materna J., Čejková A., Josefovičová A., Mikslová K., Harčariková L., Horáková V. & Zavadil V.: Krkonoše/Giant Mts. Alpine Treeless Area, a Czech Family Silver
The Krkonoše/Giant Mts. tundra is one of the most important phenomena protected by the Krkonoše/Giant Mts. National Park, in 2023 celebrating 60 years since its declaration. The unique flora and fauna include there particularly the whitebeam Sorbus sudetica, Cloudberry, also now as the Nordic berry (Rubus chamaemorus), Daisy-leaved speedwell (Veronica bellidiodes), Fernweed or Sudetic lousewort (Pedicularis sudetica subsp. sudetica), Azure hawker (Aeshna caerulea), Water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) and the Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica svecica). As a necessary precondition, all the taxa need substantially cold and wet climate. Ecosystems above the upper timberline have been facing many human-caused impacts changing and often deteriorating their state of the art. Extensive soil acidification has been occurring there and in addition, soils suffer from eutrophication caused by nitrogen from atmospheric deposition (e.g. Hůnová & Paličková 2017). Increase in temperature is another global driver there. Analysis of the Norway spruce tree growth rate suggests that the upper timberline has significantly moved upwards since the 20th century thus decreasing size of the tundra islet located above it (Treml et al. 2020). It is clear that the Krkonoše/Giant Mts. tundra has been changing – threatened habitats have step by step been disappearing and plant species adopted to harsh climate conditions have also been declining there.     ■

Materna J., Březina S., Harčarik J., Kukačka L., Hrázský Z., Čejková A., Šťastná P., Krause D. & Josefovičová A.: Uncertain Future of the Krkonoše/Giant Mts. Tundra
Not even the Krkonoše/Giant Mts. highest ridges or topmost summits, also called the Arctic-alpine tundra provide sufficient protection against human impacts. Climate change, eutrophication and local drivers, e.g. overtourism, biological invasions or insensitive building/construction interventions, combined with abandoning use of the landscape for centuries exploited by man resulted in irreversible changes in almost all Krkonoše/Giant Mts. vegetation types. Dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo) growths have been spreading at the expense of species-rich grasslands, highly adapted lichen tundra communities are overgrown by heath, sub-alpine grasslands not only on avalanche paths are replaced by dwarf mountain pine and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) growths. The changes manifest themselves also in the rarest species populations requiring new approaches to their protection, conservation and management. Targeted small-size management measures on the key sites where priority species facing up to ultimate extinction occur can be a suitable consensual solution. The pilot intervention should be carried out, at the same time carefully monitoring all its impacts and gathering high-quality background information to assess the measures.    ■

Koudelka M. & Lipták V.: The Za Hájovnou Cave and Other Surveys and Research
In the northern part of the Konice-Mladeč Devon (northern Moravia) there are not only well-known Javoříčko Caves and Mladečské Caves, both show caves, but also many others. The remarkable Za Hájovnou Cave is located on the foothills of Brablenec Hill, a part of the Paní Hory/Lady of Mountain Massif. It was formed in shelf-like grey limestones: in their bedrock there are phyllites of the Precambrian age. In 2000-2017 new spaces were found there, thus stimulating not only speleological activities but also extensive and intensive research which confirmed that there is one of sinks, in the past draining the Javoříčko Valley. Currently, the total length of discovered, i.e. dug out spaces has been more than 60 meters, and further important discoveries can be expected there. In addition, among other phenomena within the karst islet near the village of Javoříčko, particularly those discovered in the Brablenec Hill Massif, namely the V Habří Cave, U smrku Sink and the Majka Cave, the latter being a small fissure cave should be mentioned.     ■

Martínek L.: The Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic´s Project Scheme in the Operational Programme Environment 2021–2027
In the end of 2022, the Operational Programme Environment´s (OPE) new calls appeared within the Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic´s (NCA CR) project scheme. The common denominator is the so-called Simplified Methods of Proving (SMP) to be applied in projects with total costs of less than EUR 200,000. The key benefits include a simply (on-line) submission of an application, reduced number of documents to be enclosed, a quick assessment and a payment of a subvention. The amount of money is derived from standardized costs of usual measures set by the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. The NCA CR shall newly become a subvention provider. The total amount available for the NCA CR´s project scheme for implementing projects by the SMP is CZK 3.15 billion (EUR 135 million). The NCA CR has currently launched two calls for proposals for the specific targets No. 1.3 and 1.6, the separate call for plans and studies has also be planned. The whole procedure is described in a guide issued by the NCA CR, all the information is available at https://nature.cz/web/dotace/opzp-v-prs-aopk-cr. The article also presents stories of successful projects from the last OPE´s programme period, i.e. 2014–2020.    ■

Vlačiba V.: Support to a Green-winged Orchid (Anacamptis morio) Population in the České středohoří/Central Bohemia Uplands
The České středohoří/Central Bohemia Uplands is well-known due to its high diversity in nature, namely rich variability in the volcanic landscape, climate condition variability, complicated development caused by human activities and last but not least its relatively extensive size. High biological diversity does not imply that the area is fully stable with no problems related particularly to high level of threat posed to some wild plant and animal communities and whole ecosystems. Action Plans/Recovery Programmes aiming at the Eastern pasquflower (Pulsatilla patens), Ladybells (Adenophora liliifolia), Autumn dwarf gentian (Gentianella amarella), Bohemina sand pink (Gentianella amarella) and European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) are implemented there. Sub-national Action Plans, e.g. for the European beaver (Castor fiber), Hermit (Chazara briseis), European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and the selected blue butterfly species are another species protection/conservation tool in the České středohoří/Central Bohemia Uplands. In 2021, a study for supporting a Green-winged orchid (Anacamptis morio) population which had occurred at almost 50 sites there was prepared. Moreover, in 1945 – 2000 almost all the sites ceased to exist and only the Bohyňská lada Nature Reserve seemed to be promising. Therefore, the orchid population has carefully been managed there also including planting young individuals from seeds and their planned reintroduction to the original site.     ■

Plesník J.: Current and Future Trends in Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection 
In addition to traditional nature conservation tools, e.g. protected area networks, species protection/conservation, international cooperation, bioinformatics, monitoring and sustainable use of biological resources, a special attention has been paid in biodiversity conservation and sustainable use to some issues since 2005. The main paradigms include ecosystem/ecological integrity and ecosystem services concept, latter having more recently been elaborated into nature´s contributions to people idea. “New” non-equilibrium paradigm highlighting a high dynamics of ecosystems, and ecosystem approach have been applied in ecosystem management which should be adaptive to adequately and in time react on changes in nature and the landscape. Extensive and at the same time really rapid development in genetics, particularly molecular one, resulted in synthetic biology sensu scricto, molecular ecology, gene/genome editing and species de-extinction which all affect and shall be even more in the future affecting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its components. Mainstreaming biodiversity into various sectors, ensuring that biodiversity, and the services it provides, are appropriately and adequately factored into policies and practices that rely and have an impact on it, as well as participatory approach in nature management both in protected areas and outside them are also important. It can be supposed that new emerging issues in biodiversity conservation shall appear, too.     ■

Čech M. & Čech P.: The Importance of Permanent Nest Walls for the Common Kingfisher
The Common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) is an avian species protected by both Czech and European Union law. In the Red List of Threatened Species of the Czech Republic it is classified as a vulnerable species. Kingfisher nests in steep bank walls in meanders of streams, rivers and even water reservoirs. The frequency of occurrence of these highly specific nest sites is rather low within the Czech Republic´s landscape, thus limiting the population, in case of channelized streams and rivers, opencast mine lakes, fishponds and most other artificial impoundments they are absent at all. In a unique situation of high occurrence of appropriate nest sites (e.g. the Slapy Water Reservoir, Botič Brook, Dyje/Thaya River), the strict territoriality of kingfisher plays a crucial role. The quality and safety of kingfisher nests composed of deep hole finished by a coconut like chamber is approved by both predators and flood events. Kingfishers highly select for permanent nest walls (by 82 %, compared to newly formatted), which can be used for successful nesting and repetitive chick rearing even for decades. These permanent nest walls (sites), being of crucial importance for the kingfisher population, have to be strictly protected.     ■

Krása A.: The Dusky Large Blue (Phengaris nausithous) in the Moravský kras/Moravian Karst
The Dusky large blue (Phengaris nausithous) is among butterflies with the most interesting life history strategy which includes feeding caterpillars by ants in their nests. Moreover, the strategy at the same time increases its sensitivity to management of sites where it occurs. In the Moravský kras/Moravian Karst (South Moravia) and its close vicinity the butterfly has been living but its records had been only sporadic in the past. Moreover, a detailed survey showed that the state of affairs has been completely different and considerably better. In total, dusky large blues have been newly found or refound at approx. 30 sites. During the survey, the Dusky large blue was reported from most areas in the Moravský kras/Moravian Karst and its close vicinity where the Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) grows. Nevertheless, the author supposes that new sites inhabited by the butterfly shall be found in the future. Thus, the conservation status of the species seems to be quite promising because threats to the butterfly are successfully revealed and they are consequently handled in cooperation with the relevant land managers.     ■

Jelínková J.: Direct Legal Actions of Associations as Non-Participants of the Administrative Proceedings
Before amended by Act No. 225/2017 Gazette, Act No. 114/1992 Gazette on Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection allowed the public through environmental associations to participate in all the proceedings which could affect interests of nature and the landscape protected according to the Act. During recent debate on the Act on the Unified Environmental Permission it probably would not possible to bring back Article 70 paragraph 3 into the original state. Thus, direct legal actions by environmental associations against issuing permits for a building intention pursuant to the new Building Act shall be the only tool for defending right for the favourable environment through “the established local environment association”, e.g. in the case of an intervention in a Significant Landscape Element or landscape scenery/character. Thus, up-to-date experience from currently establishing administrative court practice is an important hint for associations, building owners, builders, State Nature Conservancy/ Environmental Protection authorities and Building Offices. From the court practice having been formed it has been already at present clear that if there is a strong relation of an association to a site affected by the intention such legal actions are admissible and courts dealt with their legitimacy.    ■

Šimečková B.: The 110th Anniversary of Discovering the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves
The Zbrašov Aragonite Caves at the village of Teplice nad Bečvou (Central Moravia) had been discovered at the turn of the years 1912 and 1913 and became a show cave in 1926. The length of visitor route is 375 meters, the length of the up-to-know cave system being 1 435 meters. They are part of the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves National Nature Monument declared in 2003. Since 2006, they have been managed by the Cave Administration of the Czech Republic established by the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic. As standard part of show cave management, measures are implemented there, e.g. regular speleoalpinistic checks of vertical chimneys above the visitor route, special recovery spraying to protect aragonite decorations, lampenflora eradication along the visitor route and various one-time interventions to minimalize impacts of older technological measures to make a cave accessible to visitors. Influxes of the acidulous mineral water into the cave space have been documented. On the surface, rock outcrops above the access path and an operational building are regularly checked, individual elements of visitor infrastructure are step-by-step restored, etc. In the future, it is necessary particularly to modernize the current system monitoring microclimate and CO2 there and to restore the operational building.     ■

Drapaljuk A., Vasyljuk O. & Kuzemko A.: How the War Has Affected Ukrainian Protected Areas
The damage caused to nature as a result of the full-scale military invasion of the Russian Federation started on February 24, 2022 has had a pan-European dimension and the consequences of hostilities for biodiversity will be seen across the continent. The network of protected areas in Ukraine is an essential component in preserving Europe's biodiversity protectimg mountain ecosystems within the Carpathian and Crimean Mts., key areas for migration and nesting of waterfowl on the coast of the Azov and Black seas, peat-bogs, natural forests on Polissya, and unique steppe ecosystems on the East and South of Ukraine. During the eleven months of the war, Russian aggression caused damage to the environment at more than USD 46 billion (CZK 1 trillion). Such a figure is calculated according to the methodologies that determine the amount of damage caused to land, water and atmosphere. The total amount of damage caused by soil pollution is more than USD 18.2 billion (CZK 408 billion) while that by air pollution is USD 26.4 billion (CZK 591 billion). For water pollution the damage is estimated at more than USD 1.4 billion (CZK 32 billion). Some types of damage have still been impossible to assess. For example, half a million hectares of forests are under occupation and in the hostilities zone. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources of Ukraine, Russian invaders e.g. destroyed 80% of the Sviati Hory National Nature Park, Donetsk region. Even in such conditions, protected area managers continue to work. In addition, with the beginning of the large-scale Russian invasion, protected areas took on another mission - to help people who lost their home: protected area staff has organized a shelter for over 60,000 internally displaced persons. The authors are grateful for the support from the European nature conservation community - governments, protected areas administrations, NGOs, and individual conservationists which provides an opportunity and inspires them to continue implementing nature conservation measures even under the conditions of threat to physical survival.    ■