Due to diverse geological processes, the Železné hory/Iron Mountains are really unique. Across the whole Europe, a similar region harbouring a plenty of geological units within the single small area, can be hardly found.
They include picturesque landscape with a distinct fault range, deep valleys, floodplains, with a mosaic of forest, grassland, fish pond and small human settlement patches. In the Železné hory/Iron Mts., the remarkable habitat heterogeneity has caused the high flora diversity. From a point of view of wild animal occurrence, remnants of primary forests in the Chrudimka River valley, namely the Oheb, Krkanka and Strádovské peklo Nature Reserves, the Polom Primary Forest Nature Reserve respectively, where some insect species indicate that the fir-beech forest has been occurring there at least for some centuries. For protecting the most valuable sites in the Železné hory/Iron Mts., 26 small-size Specially Protected areas were step by step established. The most extensive of them, the Lichnice – Kaňkovy hory National Nature Reserve covering 343 hectares maintains well-preserved beech, relic pine and stone debris forest communities. The Protected Landscape Area (PLA) Administration uses for nature and landscape management various European Union and national subvention programmes/subsidiary schemes. The measures aim at maintaining and improving the PLAs conservation status, both on public and private lands. Activities carried out by the PLA Administration are very diverse, focusing on the whole landscape, forests, grasslands and brooks as well as on the individual trees or wild animals orgeologically or geomorphologically remarkable sites.